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The Canary Database
Center for One Health Research
University of Washington




West Nile virus as Sentinel Exposure

This table summarizes studies curated in the Canary Database about the overall quality of published evidence supporting sentinels of human health hazards with respect to the exposure West Nile virus.

Empty cells indicate a lack of evidence in the data the Canary Database comprises.

Species Greater susceptibility Shorter latency Greater exposure risk Early warning
American crow    
Anas sp.      
Aythya collaris      
Birds
Carpodacus mexicanus      
Cats
Chickens  
Coccyzus minor      
Corvus ossifragus      
Coturnix    
Cuculiformes    
Culicidae      
Cyanocitta cristata    
Dogs
Gray squirrel      
Horses  
Mallard duck      
Mice      
Opossums      
Owls    
Passer domesticus      
Pica hudsonia    
Procyon lotor      
Quiscalus quiscula      
Raccoons      
Red squirrel <1>      
ring-billed gull      
rock pigeon      
Rodentia
Ruddy quail-dove      
Saurothera longirostris      
Sciurus niger      
Songbirds    
Turdus plumbeus      
Virginia opossum      

Legend

/ - Experimental or cohort studies

/ - Case control, cross sectional, or aggregate studies

/ - Case report or expert opinion
Greater susceptibility
Species more susceptible than humans
Shorter latency
Species affected by exposure more rapidly than humans
Greater exposure risk
Species at increased risk of exposure compared with humans
Early warning
Species provided early warning of human health hazards

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