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The Canary Database
Center for One Health Research
University of Washington




Carrier State as Sentinel Outcome

This table summarizes studies curated in the Canary Database about the overall quality of published evidence supporting sentinels of human health hazards with respect to the outcome Carrier State.

Empty cells indicate a lack of evidence in the data the Canary Database comprises.

Species Greater susceptibility Shorter latency Greater exposure risk Early warning
American crow      
Anser indicus      
Calidris alba      
Calidris canutus      
Carpodacus mexicanus      
Cats    
Chickens      
Ciconiiformes      
Corvus ossifragus      
Cyanocitta cristata      
Dogs      
Ducks      
Fishes    
Herring gull      
Larus      
Laughing gull      
Mice      
Passer domesticus      
Pica hudsonia      
Psittacines  
Quiscalus quiscula      
ring-billed gull      
Ruddy turnstone      
Scolopacidae      

Legend

/ - Experimental or cohort studies

/ - Case control, cross sectional, or aggregate studies

/ - Case report or expert opinion
Greater susceptibility
Species more susceptible than humans
Shorter latency
Species affected by exposure more rapidly than humans
Greater exposure risk
Species at increased risk of exposure compared with humans
Early warning
Species provided early warning of human health hazards

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